Donor Involvement in the Water Sector in SADC | The Water Page

On a national level, The African Development Bank (ADB) is funding an urban restructuring water supply project in Kitwe, Zambia in collaboration with NORAD.On a national level, Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has funded a groundwater survey for Swaziland, water supply project for Mozambique, and a research and technical branch project for Zimbabwe. On a regional level, with IUCN, CIDA is also funding a regional project Zambezi Basin Wetlands Conservation and Resource Utilisation Program (ZBWCRUP) with the aim of strengthening IUCN’s members’ and partners’ capacity to provide input to initiatives within the Zambezi drainage basin and the region. Launched in 1995, the ZBWCRUP covers five riparian states of the Zambezi River and its tributaries (Botswana, Namibia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia). Project activities will be carried out at the local, national, and regional level. Four wetland ecosystems have been identified as field sites and will be used as demonstration projects: the Barotse Flood Plain in Zambia, the Caprivi/Chobe/Linyati Wetlands in Botswana/Namibia, the Lower Shire in Malawi, and the Zambezi Delta in Mozambique. CIDA has also funded a hydrological study of the Zambezi and is involved in a Regional Hydroelectric Hydrological Assistance Program. CIDA has provided funding to the India Musokotwane Environment Resource Centre (IMERSCA) to implement a project called The Disaster Management Information Project the objectives of which are to provide accessible and accurate information on disasters and vulnerabilities (drought, floods, epidemics, storms, etc.) in the southern African region.On a national level, Denmark International Development Agency (DANIDA) has been active in supporting national-level water sector activities including rural water supply projects in Tanzania and Zimbabwe, urban water supply and sanitation in Mozambique, and water supply in semi-urban areas in Malawi. DANIDA has also been involved with water supply, education and integrated waste management in South Africa. DANIDA has funded hand pump rehabilitation and maintenance in Zimbabwe. The World Bank and DANIDA have funded a Rapid Water Resources Assessment. DANCED (the Danish Cooperation for Environment and Development) is planning to support a water resources management study in Botswana. On a regional level, DANIDA has funded the Sector Studies Project under ZACPLAN which will be completed by the end of 1998. In addition, DANIDA has established an Integrated Water Resources Management Consultancy Fund for the SADC region. The fund can be sourced for short-term consultancies in Integrated Water Resources Management Activities in the region. The Institute of Water and Sanitation Development based in Harare manages the fund.On a national level, Development Bank of Southern Africa (DBSA) is involved in integrated programs with a water component in South Africa, Lesotho, Malawi, Botswana, Swaziland, and Namibia.On a national level, European Union (EU) is funding a project in support of the Water and Sewerage Authority in Lesotho to rehabilitate water supply and sanitation installations in six district towns. On a regional level, the EU supported a SADC conference on management of shared river basins in May 1997, in Maseru, Lesotho. The focus of the Maseru conference was on the political, institutional and legal approaches and experiences required to bring about a process leading to the sustainable, equitable and mutually beneficial management and use of international waters. The objective of the conference was to investigate approaches for the sound and sustainable management of international waters to the mutual benefit of all riparian states through the exchange of ideas and experiences among EU and SADC countries. Further, a statement from the participants of the conference was produced with recommendations for sustainable management of international water resources.The EU is also funding a project entitled “Advanced Hydrological and Environmental Monitoring Network (SADC-HYCOS). The Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in South Africa will implement this project. The objective of the HYCOS-SADC project is to improve and provide an efficient system for hydro meteorological data collection, processing and dissemination. This system is intended to provide a mechanism for timely data exchange between the collecting agency and the users throughout the SADC region and to provide an early warning of impending problems due to floods, drought, water shortages, etc. The pilot Regional Center for this activity is hosted by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in Pretoria. Technical advice and monitoring is provided by WMO and the Institute of Hydrology (UK). The EU is also funding a three and a half year project which began in 1997 called the Population, Development, and Environment Project. This is a research project to evaluate alternative paths for sustainable development in Botswana, Mozambique, and Namibia. One aspect of this project is to predict water quality trends in surface water to the year 2020. France has a long-term policy of supporting water related activities in Africa. There are three channels for French financial assistance. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs provides technical assistance and funds projects under the grant assistance of the French Aid and Co-operation Fund (“FAC” projects). The Ministry of Economy and Finance provides subsidies or loans with preferential interest rates. The Agence Francaise de Developpement (AFD), the French Agency for Development is a parastatal institution operating as a bank with preferential loan conditions. AFD may provide grant assistance to the poorest countries. The French Missions for Cooperation (MCAC) is involved in the following water related activities. On a regional level, MCAC has assigned a groundwater expert for 2 years and financial support (US$620,000) to the Groundwater Management Programme for the SADC region. On a national level, the French government and the government of Mauritius are co-financing a groundwater resources investigation and management project for the whole island (US$11 million). In Namibia, there is support for a rural water supply project to pipe water from the Kunene River to villages in northern Namibia (1991 to present, US$7 million). In South Africa, MCAC is providing expert missions, seminars on water supply issues, integrated basin management, and legal support to the Water Act (1996-98). In the Seychelles, MCAC has supported an atlas of environmentally sensitive areas and set up impact study procedures. In Botswana, there has been support of several groundwater projects, a training program and documentation center as part of the North South Carrier Project and co-financing for the water treatment plant. In Angola, AFD has been involved with rehabilitation of the Luanda Water Supply and has provided technical assistance to the Luanda Provincial Water Company. In addition, the French Fund for World Environment supports evaluation studies related to international issues of river basin management. The International Water Office, a parastatal, also is involved with promoting the French system of river basin management and organizes international training courses in many water related issues.On a national level, in South Africa, Finland (FANNIDA) is helping to develop water quality management plans in several catchment areas and has supported eradication of alien invasives to increase water yields. They are also supporting a water management plan for the Limpopo River Catchment East of Messina and have supported the Water Law Review process.On a national level, Deutsche Gessellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ)) has supplied advisory services to the Department of Water Affairs in Zambia, and has funded rural water supply activities in Zimbabwe. In Namibia, GTZ is supporting the Communal Areas Water Supply Project that is providing support to development of a community-based management strategy for rural water supply and capacity building in the water sector. This project is in its seventh year. In partnership with the World Bank and UNDP, GTZ is giving support to the Namibian Water Resources Management Review that is a project undertaking a comprehensive review of the water resources sector in Namibia. Further, GTZ is funding the Sewerage Water Awareness Management Project in Namibia which is assisting the major settlements in the northern region with organizing and implementing water supply in three major settlement. This activity is in its sixth year. Germany and France are also funding (US$7 million) a feasibility study of the economic potential of the Zambezi Valley between the Cahora Bassa dam and the city of Tete in western Mozambique.On a regional level, the Government of Germany is assisting SADC to prepare a joint presentation for the EXPO 2000 with technical and financial assistance under the theme Water. The EXPO 2000 is scheduled for June to October 2000. GTZ is also funding Infonet, which is an information system for laws and regulations regarding water management in southern Africa. This system will allow for cross-country comparisons.Additionally BGR is co-operating with the Geological Surveys of Botswana, Malawi and Namibia on the sectors environmental geology and geophysics.Global Environment Facility (GEF) is funding the Lake Malawi/Nyasa Biodiversity Conservation Project, the goals of which are to strengthen the existing water quality monitoring efforts, survey the species of fish, and prepare a biodiversity map of the lake. GEF is also funding work on Lake Victoria (Tanzania and two non-SADC countries) and is providing a Block A grant for $350,000 to OKACOM to develop a strategic action plan for the Okavango Basin.Global Water Partnership (GWP) seeks to translate an emerging global consensus on water resources management into responsive action on the ground. The GWP has identified Southern Africa as the region with the highest priority for initial GWP action. A regional meeting took place in Namibia in November 1996 and a follow-up meeting was held in Lesotho in January 1997, co-chaired by SADC Water Sector Unit and GWP. At this meeting, several suggestions from the Windhoek meeting were discussed including developing a SADC model on Integrated Water Resources Management (including a water economics program), establishing a Southern African Technical Advisory Committee (SATAC), and support for the Protocol (including a review of the various member countries and their water laws in order to harmonize potential discrepancies with the protocol). GWP held a conference in March 1997 in Morocco where proposals from the region such as those described above were presented. It is envisioned that the GWP will play a strong role in coordinating donor activity in the region. Recently, the SATAC has been created with the Secretariat based at the IUCN office in Harare.On a national level, Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD) has supported water supply projects in Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. NORAD has also funded the Corumana Hydroelectric Plant in Mozambique and a pre-feasibility study for the Epupa Hydropower Scheme on the Cunene River. On a regional level, NORAD has long supported water resource work in the Zambezi Basin. NORAD is also funding a regional Wetlands Conservation Program.On a national level, Netherlands International Development Agency (IDGIS) has funded rural water supply activities in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Tanzania, and Zambia. IDGIS has also provided hydrology sector assistance in Mozambique. With IUCN, the Netherlands has funded the preparation of the Upper Zambezi Wetlands and Natural Resource Management Program in Zambia. On a regional level, Dutch Aid is funding WaterNet – a regional network for education and training on Integrated Water Resources Management in the SADC region. This network will consist of a number of participating institutions, including the relevant universities and training institutes in the region, the relevant stakeholders and the International Institute for Infrastructural, Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering (IHE), Delft. One important hub in the network will be Harare, where the University of Zimbabwe, the Institute for Water and Sanitation Development IWSD and IHE have established the first regional Master of Science program and training program in Integrated Water Resources Management.On a national level, Swedish International Development Agency (Sida) is currently funded many activities including: 1) in Namibia, Sida has been funding the Desert Research Foundation’s work on education about water conservation and sustainable management; 2) in Zimbabwe, the Pungue-Mutare water supply scheme with specific focus on environmental impacts; 3) work on the Kafue Gorge Hydro Plant in Zambia: 4) work on the Kidatu, the Mtera, and the Pangani Hydro Power Plants in Tanzania; 5) rural water supply projects in Botswana and Tanzania; 6) in Zimbabwe, Sida is supporting a national hydrological and sediment monitoring and modelling programme as well as the development of a water quality monitoring system; 7) in Zimbabwe, a groundwater study in Bulawayo is underway with the intent of locating an alternative water source to the proposed and costly pipeline connecting Bulawayo with the Zambezi River; and 8) also, in Zimbabwe, Sida has funded the Pungue-Mutare water supply scheme with specific focus on environmental impacts.On a regional level, In 1996, Sida launched the Swedish Southern Africa Regional Water Resources Programme (SARWMP) under the Swedish Initiative for Support to Sustainable Management of Water Resources. The Government of Sweden has committed 45 MSEK to the initiative for the period 1996-1998. The development objective of SARWMP is “to assist in the improvement of integrated water resource management in southern Africa.” Two objectives of SARWMP are: 1) to raise awareness and understanding of sustainable use of water resources; and 2) to assist in creating integrated management of shared water resources. SARWMP is managed by a regional coordinator based at the Swedish Embassy in Harare.In the future, SIDA plans on working through the University of Natal, with South Africa and Mozambique to develop research cooperation on the shared Nkomati River System. This program to be called the “Shared Rivers Research Program” will support the joint collection of riverine ecosystem data and disseminate results to policymakers. Sida also plans on working with the Land and Agriculture Policy Centre in South Africa and with IUCN to set up a regional research program on how to equitably share international rivers. A set of thematic papers will be developed with particular focus on economic issues. With the Desert Research Foundation in Namibia, Sida plans to help establish a Southern African Regional Research Network that will act as a focal point for dissemination of research results and information.In addition, Sida plans to support the new SADC Water Sector Coordination Unit; establish a regional water and sanitation officer post in UNICEF to disseminate results achieved in this sector from Zimbabwe to other countries in the region; and initiate a course in water quality at the University of Zimbabwe. Sida also expects to fund activities defined through OKACOM but awaits a donor conference for further definition. In addition, Sida has been approached to co-finance with the World Bank a study on the Pungue River shared between Zimbabwe and Mozambique. Sida is considering funding a regional groundwater assessment and is awaiting a full proposal from the Geology Department, University of Zimbabwe.In addition, Sida is funding a regional Research Fund to promote and facilitate the implementation of multi-disciplinary projects in Integrated Water Resources Management in the region and to promote the use of research results for decision-making aimed at ensuring sustainable development of water resources in the region. Sida is also providing core-funding for Secretariat for the Global Water Partnership Southern Africa Technical Advisory Committee which is based at the IUCN Regional Office in Harare.Finally, Sida plans to be one of the main supporters of ZACPRO 6 phase II which aims at establishing a management plan for Zambezi River Basin. NORAD and DANIDA will also provide funding for this effort. Sida has provided funding for a consultancy and negotiation forum for the development of the Zambezi River Commission (ZAMCOM). Sida is also considering providing funding to strengthen the research and GIS analytical capacity of the Zambezi River Authority (ZRA) – the organization responsible for energy production and management of Lake Kariba.On a national level, in Zimbabwe, United Kingdom, Department for International Development (DFID) supports a range of rural water supply and management projects including the following activities: 1) Nutrition Gardens and Ground Water Development (Ngadi) – this project develops capacity to implement collector well construction for domestic use and for irrigating village. 2) Drought assistance program that provides assistance to NGOs for emergency relief and drought preparedness activities includes dam construction, irrigation, rehabilitation of boreholes. 3) Bikita integrated water and sanitation which is a rural water supply, sanitation, and hygiene education project. 4) Water quality analysis lab. 5) WRMS which provides technical assistance to develop a strategy to distribute water equitably between users. 6) Lupane integrated water and sanitation project. 7) Support to NGOs in Matabeleland to develop small water schemes. 8) Soil and water conservation. 9) Software developed to assist with the design of surface irrigation schemes. 10) Study on adverse effects of irrigation schemes and how they can be reduced. 11) Community Resource Management and Livelihood Strategies project which focuses on water points and community gardens, community based resource management, livelihood strategies, and dryland catchments.In Malawi, DFID also supports water supply projects and a project to look at sources of siltation in the Shire River. In Zambia, DFID supports water supply and sanitation projects, an activity that focuses on the conservation and management of Kafue Flats and the Bangweulu Basin, and emergency relief drought mitigation. In Zambia, DFID is also funding a study and development of low cost technologies and software to encourage improvement of traditional water supplies by users and promotion of adoption of the concept into national policy. Also, in Mozambique, DFID supports water supply and sanitation activities. In addition, DFID is working in South Africa with the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF) assisting with the development of a National Sanitation Program. The purpose of this program is to develop and implement the start-up phase of the NSP at national, provincial and local levels. DFID is also supporting a Capacity Building Program for DWAF. The purpose of which is to build an institutional framework and capacity to support community water supply and sanitation established in 2 provinces. DFID also supports human resource development in this Department. In June 1998, DFID began a project called the Water Sector Support Project – Phase 2 the intent of which is to demonstrate the provision of sustainable water services to poor and previously disadvantaged South Africans through pilot approaches with selected water service authorities. In Lesotho, DFID supports: 1) the Water and Sewerage Authority, 2) the Joint Permanent Technical Commission for the Lesotho Highlands Water Project; and 3) the Department of Rural Water Supply. In Swaziland, DFID supports: the Swaziland Water Services Corporation, and the Rural Water Supply and SanitationOn a regional level, DFID is supporting the following water-related research in the region: 1) evaluation and development of guidelines for the use of decision networks at the local and catchment scales; 2) a study of sanitation practices of urban poor, and the policies and resources of agencies, and how they link together in southern Africa and the development of methodology for developing these links for use by others; 3) the development of an early warning system of groundwater drought for vulnerable areas and a menu of actions that could be triggered by that system; 4) provision and dissemination of well focused practical tools to enable engineers and managers to incorporate gender issues effectively into the project cycle for water and sanitation and other infrastructure works; 5) a study on how utilities can use pricing and service differentiation to benefit all and move towards financial sustainability, as well as the development of methodology for structuring service delivery and tariffs to serve low-income customers; 6) development of guidelines to prepare integrated Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Programs, within which projects can be planned for institutional, technical and environmental sustainability; 7) a handbook giving synthesis of research and development findings for planning and implementing community-based productive water points. DFID supports the Southern African FRIEND project which is developing a common hydrological monitoring center, under the UNDP/WMO Drought Monitoring Projec. On a regional level, DFID is considering support to the following initiatives: 1) a water and sanitation information network; 2) support to hydrological services; and 3) private sector participation in water and sanitation.On a national level, United Nations Development Program (UNDP) has worked to strengthen national water management institutions such as the National Water Resources Board in Malawi, the National Directorate for Water Resources in Mozambique, the National Hydrological Services in Zambia, the Lesotho Highlands Development Authority, and the Ministry of Water in Tanzania. UNDP has funded a flood forecasting system and a groundwater data computer unit for Malawi. UNDP has also funded rural water supply and/or sanitation projects in Malawi, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Tanzania, and irrigation projects in Tanzania and Botswana. UNDP is also providing support to the National Conservation Strategy Agency in Botswana to work on the management of wetlands, among other activities.On a regional level, UNDP has provided support to the SADC WSCU for the SADC Round Table Conference on Integrated Water Resources Management. This project has provided direct support to the WSCU to help prepare a Round Table Conference on integrated water resources management within the SADC region. Tasks have included preparation of Country Situation Reports, a regional water resource strategy, designing a regional strategic plan and drafting a document to present to the Round Table Conference. Additional preparation for the Round Table has includes supporting a Preparatory Workshop for the Conference which was held in April 1996 in Gaborone, Botswana, a Stakeholder Workshop that was held in Livingstone, Zambia in February 1998, and a sensitization meeting which will be in October 1998. As called for in the SADC Protocol on Shared Watercourse Systems, the Roundtable will assist in mobilizing the resources needed to develop and implement national and regional integrated water resources development plans. The expected outputs will be development and adoption of national water policies and regulatory reforms; institutional and capacity-building; and water resources management programmes that include bankable projects in infrastructure development and investment, for integrated water resources management and equitable utilization of shared watercourse systems in SADC. The Round Table took place in Geneva, Switzerland in December 1998.Also, under SADC-ELMS, UNEP and WHO funded the development of water quality guidelines. UNDP has funded activities associated with the Komati River Basin involving Swaziland and South Africa. UNDP has budgeted US$10 million for a project entitled, “Pollution Control and Other Measures to Protect Biodiversity in Lake Tanganyika involving Zaire, Zambia and Tanzania. A UNDP project installed a flood forecasting system along the Shire and its major tributary, the Ruo River in Malawi and Mozambique. This system consists of automatic water level recorders, computers and trained staff. The United Nation’s Secretary General’s Special Initiative on Africa (SIA) includes water as one of its five key elements. In relation to the SIA, a UN Agency Informal Working Group on Water has been formed under the co-chair of UNEP and the World Bank, with current members including, FAO, UNDP, UNDDSMS, UNICEF, WHO, and the Water and Sanitation Program. This working group is creating a matrix of current and future agency activities at a country level. UNDP will also fund several activities to promote broad-based participation in the water sector including: 1) involving the media in water issues, 2) conducting a feasibility study for the creation of a fund to support NGO and CBO participation, and 3) an activity to empower women’s participation in the water sector. Lastly, UNDP will fund the SADC WSCU.On a national level, UNICEF has been working on rural water supply and/or sanitation projects in Mozambique, Tanzania, Lesotho, Malawi, and Namibia. In Mozambique, UNICEF has provided support to national water training schools and in Malawi has supported activities in village-based maintenance of handpumps.USAID’s Regional Center for Southern Africa is now working with the SADC Water Sector Coordination Unit on several activities related to implementing the Water Protocol. First, the RCSA is assisting efforts to develop guidelines for the management of international river basins and to define the roles and responsibilities of the various institutions proposed by the Protocol. Draft Terms of Reference for this activity have been developed and will be finalized by July 1999. Second, USAID is providing technical assistance to prepare Terms of Reference for defining catchment boundaries associated with river basins in the region. These Terms of Reference will be finalized from discussions at the SADC Water Resources Technical Committee Meeting in May 1999.Thirdly, a legal study on the relationship between the SADC Protocol and the UN Convention on Non-Navigational Uses of International Rivers has been drafted and presented to the SADC Water Technical Committee for use in amending the Protocol to assure conformity with the UN Convention. In addition, draft Terms of Reference are being prepared to address harmonization between the Protocol and National Water Laws; these Terms of Reference will be finalized in May 1999. Fourthly, a draft brochure has been developed with the SADC WSCU to publicize the Protocol and the WSCU’s role to a range of stakeholders. This brochure has been finalized and distributed in February 1999.To build capacity, USAID will fund short term training in various aspects of water resource management, including environmental aspects of river basin management, water conservation and demand management, international water law and conflict management. These short courses will be targeted both at providing an understanding of key issues to policy makers, as well as strengthening the technical skills of active practitioners. This training program is now being designed, and it is hoped that the first short course will be offered to policy makers in July 1999 through a regional institution. To implement this training, USAID hopes to work in collaboration with the on-going Waternet activity, and in close consultation with the SADC Water Sector Coordination Unit.USAID is also funding activities related to the development of Natural Resource Accounts in Namibia, Botswana, and South Africa, including capacity-building and the construction of accounts for three countries. Water is one of the resources being analyzed to determine its role in economic development, and in particular its pricing across countries. The analysis will look at economic decision-making for water in several of the region’s watersheds. Further, the Regional Center for Southern Africa is reviewing for possible funding proposals received from NGOs in the region for activities to improve the management of shared natural resources — including water or selected watersheds; these proposals have been submitted for funding under a USAID agreement signed with SADC to strengthen the role of NGOs in the regional economy.On a national level, in Angola, USAID has launched a two year activity to help design an appropriate model for private sector participation in the operation of Luanda’s water supply and sanitation system. In South Africa, USAID supports an activity entitled “Capacity-building for Water Service Delivery” the purpose of which is to build capacity of local government authorities to assume their newly defined responsibilities for water service provision as stipulated in the South Africa’s Water Services Act of 1997. Objectives of the program include: 1) to assist the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in the transfer process of water service delivery to local governments, 2) to support the creation of a local Water Board to manage bulk water supply for the Sabe River Catchment, and 3) to support the establishment and institutional development of local water authorities that will assume responsibility for water service to local water authorities. Funding committed for this program is US$4.2 million from 1994 – 2003.Also, in South Africa, the United States has supported the “Working for Water” Project — an activity aimed at eliminating invasive tree species which threaten the natural vegetation and decrease water yields in the Western Cape. In addition, USAID has also provided assistance to Critical Flows- a five-year project implemented by World Resources Institute (WRI), local institutions in South Africa, and other organizations worldwide. Critical Flows project team will develop, field-test, and promote the use of analytical tools and guides for ecosystem approaches to water resource management and planning. This activity has just been launched. Further, The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States Government is working through the Gore-Mbeki U.S/South Africa Bi-national Commission to implement a state-of-the-art National Weather Service (NWS) River Forecast System for the Vaal River Basin. The forecast system will eventually be operated by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry in cooperation with the South African Weather Bureau and the National Water Commission. This activity is one component of building an integrated water resources management program in South Africa. Also as part of the US/South Africa Bi-National Commission, the US Department of Interior has provided senior policy, legal and economic specialists to facilitate the development of a water sector policy by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry. South African staff have visited the US to attend workshops and work with US technical counterparts.In Malawi, USAID is funding small well projects under the Community Health Partnership. Also, in Malawi, USAID is supporting policy reform with a focus on harmonizing policies in the natural resource management and on devolution of authority to local populations. The Department of Water Affairs is one of the agencies in Malawi with which this activity works. In Zambia, USAID is supporting activities to promote clean water treatment under the Family Health Project.On a national level, the World Bank (the Bank) has been requested by the Government of Angola, to support ongoing preparation activities for a national water sector project. A program of support is currently being developed in collaboration with NORAD, including policy reform and the implementation of a pilot basin-wide water resources management project. Following a request from the Government, a tripartite (GoA-NORAD-BANK) meeting that will discuss the scope, budget and program of a water resources management project is planned to take place in Luanda in late September, 1998. There is a significant water resources management component within the ongoing IDA-assisted National Water Development Project for Malawi, which is also supported by the Nordic Development Fund. The focus is on strengthening the Water Resources Board and on community-based watershed protection. Project progress has been slow and efforts are being made to resolve the bottlenecks. Assistance has been given to the preparati